papers by Lee Irons

Biblical Theology

Biblical Theology and Systematic Theology (HTML)
Walther Zimmerli as Biblical Theologian (PDF 25 pp.)
The Theology of Atonement in Leviticus (PDF 23 pp.)


The Eternal Generation of the Son (HTML)
Outline of R. P. Martin's book on Philippians 2:5-11 (PDF 13 pp.)

Covenant Theology

Works in the Mosaic Covenant: A Survey of Major Covenant Theologians (PDF 20 pp.)
The Subservient Covenant: A 17th Century Precursor of Kline's View of the Mosaic Covenant (PDF 22 pp.)
Redefining Merit: An Examination of Medieval Presuppositions in Covenant Theology (PDF 29 pp.)
Kline on the Works Principle in the Mosaic Economy: An Exposition (PDF 28 pp.)
Response to Merit and Moses: A Critique of the Klinean Doctrine of Republication (PDF 43 pp.)
Meredith Kline's By Oath Consigned Compared with Kingdom Prologue (PDF 39 pp.)

Covenantal Baptism

The Oikos Formula (PDF 12 pp.)
How Should We Treat Our Covenant Children? (PDF 11 pp.)


Paul's Theology of Israel's Future: A Non-Millennial Interpretation of Romans 11 (PDF 25 pp.)
Will There Be a Golden Age Before Christ Returns? (HTML)
Entering God's Rest by Faith: Realized Eschatology in Hebrews 3:7-4:11 (PDF 36 pp.)
Prophetic Idiom (PDF 3 pp.)

Genesis Debates

The Framework Interpretation: An Exegetical Summary (HTML)
Animal Death Before the Fall: What Does the Bible Say? (HTML)
Review of The Genesis Debate: Three Views on the Days of Creation (HTML)
Adam and Evolution (PDF 18 pp.)

Greek New Testament

Influence of the Septuagint on the Greek New Testament (PDF 17 pp.)
Tips for Reading the Greek NT (PDF 2 pp.)
Greek NT One-Year Calendar (PDF 1 p.)
Greek NT Two-Year Calendar (PDF 2 pp.)


Beyond Probation (HTML)
Righteousness for the Unrighteous (HTML)
Aspects of the Doctrine of Justification According to Reformed Theology (PDF 20 pp.)

Law-Gospel Contrast

The Law-Gospel Contrast in Lutheranism, Dispensationalism, and Pauline Theology (PDF 13 pp.)
Countering 10 Arguments Against the Law-Gospel Paradigm (PDF 17 pp.)

Miscellaneous Studies

"He Descended Into Hell" (PDF 17 pp.)
The Use of "Hellenistic Judaism" in Pauline Studies (PDF 50 pp.)
Review of Seeing the Word: Refocusing New Testament Study by Markus Bockmuehl (PDF 14 pp.)
Matthew's Use of Isa 42:1-4 in Matt 12:17-21 (PDF 5 pp.)

Missional Movement

A Critique of Tim Keller's "Evangelistic Worship" (Revised; PDF 32 pp.)
The Sentimental Gospel of The Jesus Storybook Bible (PDF 5 pp.)

New Perspective on Paul

Romans 2:13: Is Paul Coherent? (PDF 70 pp.)
Romans 2:13 SBL Poster (one PowerPoint slide)
Seyoon Kim's Critique of the New Perspective on Paul (PDF 19 pp.)

Theonomy and Two Kingdoms

Common Theonomic Arguments (HTML)
The Reformed Theocrats: A Biblical Theological Response (PDF 46 pp.)
The 1788 American Revision of the Westminster Standards (PDF 15 pp.)
Theonomy and the 1788 American Revision (PDF 23 pp.)
Kline's View of the Cultural Mandate (PDF 27 pp.)

Third Use of the Law

Not Under the Law but Under Grace (PDF 12 pp.)
Married to Another (HTML)
Three Covenantal Enshrinements of the Moral Will of God (PDF 2 pp.)
Recovering the Marrow Tradition in the Westminster Confession's Doctrine of the Law (PDF 32 pp.)
The Law in the Hand of Christ (PDF 9 pp.)

by Meredith Kline

Covenant Theology

What is a Covenant? (HTML)
Covenant Theology Under Attack (HTML)
Answering Objections to the Covenant of Works (HTML)
Two Adams, Two Covenants of Works (PDF 31 pp.)
Typology, Two-Level Fulfillment, and Kline's Critique of Dispensationalism (PDF 24 pp.)
Comments on the A. A. Hodge One-Covenant Construction (HTML)
Kline on the Works Principle in the Mosaic Economy (PDF 17 pp.)

Handouts based on Kline's Lectures

Kline's Grid (PDF 1 p.)
Kline's Covenant Theology (PDF 1 p.)
A Glossary of Klinean Terminology (HTML)
Kline's Covenantal Analysis of the Law (PDF 2 pp.)
The Use of the Treaty Format in the Mosaic Covenant (PDF 1 p.)
Christ and Culture: Four Views (PDF 2 pp.)

My Tribute to Meredith G. Kline (1922-2007) (HTML)